What is CoronaVirus? (Covid19)

what is coronavirus
what is coronavirus

What is coronavirus?

In December 2019, pneumonia cases began to appear in China, the cause of which could not be explained suddenly. Research has revealed that these cases of pneumonia are a new type of coronavirus that has not been previously described. This form of the virus was called Coronavirus 2019, COVID-19, since it appeared in 2019. Coronavirus is actually a virus that is abundant in animals. The source of the virus that caused the disease recently is thought to be the Huanan seafood market in Wuhan, China. It was understood in time that the virus, which is transmitted from animal to human, can spread from person to person.

Coronaviruses are, in fact, a large group of viruses of different types, although it comes with the recent outbreak. It carries RNA as a genetic material, and is the group of viruses with the largest genome among viruses carrying RNA. Coronavirus is an enveloped virus and has spike-shaped protrusions around its envelope. This structure gives it an image of a royal crown when viewed under an electron microscope. For this reason, the virus was named Corona, which means Latin royal crown.


Corona Virus

Different types of coronaviruses cause different diseases. For example, some coronaviruses cause digestive system (gastrointestinal) disorders, while others bring complaints about the respiratory system. Coronaviruses that cause respiratory disorders also differ among themselves. In some infections, only mild symptoms such as cold, while pneumonia results in some people. However, coronaviruses generally show mild symptoms, with the exception of the three examples in history. The first example is the SARS coronavirus, which is an abbreviation of the English words ‘Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome – Serious Acute Respiratory Syndrome’ observed in China in 2003. In 2012, this time, the MERS coronavirus called ‘Middle East Respiratory Syndrome – Middle East Respiratory Syndrome’ appeared in Saudi Arabia. Finally, the 2019 n-CoV (2019 Novel Coronavirus, 2019 New Coronavirus), which is currently spreading around the world, has emerged. All these exemplified coronaviruses cause serious symptoms and may even result in death.

Animal to Human Transmission

The transfer of coronaviruses from animal to human is also not observed for the first time. SARS disease is thought to be transmitted to human from Musk (Civet) cat, a cat species living in Asia.

MERS, on the other hand, has spread to camels that are very common in the Middle East and in close contact with people.

There is a widespread belief that the 2019 coronavirus is transmitted to humans by consuming bats from the animal market or by consuming an exotic animal called pangolin. However, this information has not yet been verified by the World Health Organization.

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